|Taekwondo Bible, Vol.2||
2-2-3. Ontological Foundation of Samjae
Then, how can the Samjae be at the first bottom of distinctive change? What is the ontological foundation of Samjae?
To sum up briefly the ontological foundation of Samjae, it's like the following. The foundation of every distinction is the intentional subjective. This intentional subjective distinguishes objects. As the objects are distinguished by the intentional subjective that distinction is also distinguished from its root that enables it. This is what is meant by; "It is inevitable that there is Saram(Man) between Haneul(Sky) and Tang(Earth) whenever the both are given because the they are to be divided from one whole as Saram(Man) exists"(Ch.12) and is the reason why we put the symbol of Saram between those of Haneul and Tang.
Let me explain a little more in detail. The entirety of what there is can be divided into what is an object and what is not object. Here, what is not the object is all the others that enable the object as it is. If we settle an object and what is not(what enables it) we come to get two categories, but this settlement is accomplished by cognitive subjective. Therefore, adding the subjective too, we come to get three in our settlement. Then how can we conceive it? The subjective knows all for itself that it is possible for an object to be settled as it is only by a subjective. This is the intrinsic ability of the reflexive subjective. At the same time, therefore, we know an object can be as it is only when it is distinguished from what is not the object, and also that all the others that are not the object are what enable the object as it is. Furthermore, since we know an object can be what it is based on what is not it we also know that an object is related to what is not it making the entirety.
The root of every distinction is the intentional subjective. This intentional subjective is also the willing subject that intends to do something at the same time. If you have this intending you come to also have an objective, something you intend to do, with a method of how to get it. Here, the objective is the root that produces its method. If you have an objective and its method only, then they will not be more than 2 categories, however, they must be established for the intentional subjective. Accordingly the whole come to be composed of relations among three.
Considering the order of establishment, the existence of an intentional subjective is prior to that of the cognitive subjective. Because something can be an intentional subjective without good cognitive activity while nothing can recognize something without intention. Therefore, I call it "intentional subjective" with both implication.
Because the concept of Samjae include the reflective conception what is not an object come to be established as what enables the object as it is. This is the reason why Samjae isn't composed of Tang 1, Tang 2 and Saram, nor of Yin, Yang and Saram, but of Haneul, Tang and Saram. In case Haneul and Tang symbolized Yin and Yang respectively both of them would mean distinguished objects. In the book ¡ºHwae Sam Kyeong¡» it was said; "Sky(Haneul) allows with its emptiness while body embrace with its filledness, and since an empty thing has no figure its bigness cannot be measured while since a filled thing has its shape its bigness comes under limitation."1) Saying that an empty thing has no figure means it is not distinguishable on one hand, while saying a filled thing that has its shape comes under limitation, means it is distinguishable on the other hand. That is to say, "Everything that changes relatively, i.e. that has no shape on itself is refered to by the name of Haneul(Sky), while everything that is fixed relatively, i.e. that has concrete figure about itself is refered to by the name of Tang(Earth)."(Ch.12)
Saram(Man) is the intentional subjective as the standard or the subject of distinction.
1) ¡¸¼ÂÀ» ¸ðÀº ±Û(üåß²Ìè)¡¹, 9. Ïýìé: ô¸, ì¤úÈé», ãó, ì¤ãùøÐ, úÈöÎÙíû¡, ÐìÓÞÙíÕá, ãùöÎêóô÷, ÐìÓÞêóùÚ.