|Taekwondo Bible, Vol.2||
2-4. Haneul, Tang and Saram in Taekwondo
Samjae is the central concept that supports the entire arguments of The Philosophical Principles of TAEKWONDO. Taekwondo is not only in ideas but also in man's actions, so it is in touch with transdistinctive reality. Thus, the TAEKWONDO as principle can be explained better based on the concept of Samjae.
"The origin that makes everything
exist is the driving force that generates all changes of everything, which has
been called <DoÔ³> on one hand and it has been also called <Yeokæ¶>
on the other hand."(Ch.24) Any of <Do> and <Yeok> refers
to the transdistinctive truth, which represents the figure of things before
distinction through Samjae. It was said in The Great Appendix; ¡°<Yeok>
comprehends as in a mould or enclosure the transformations of heaven and earth
without any error; by an ever-varying adaptation it completes (the nature of)
all things without exception.¡±1) ¡°Yes, wide
is the <Yeok> and great! If we speak of it in its farthest reaching, no
limit can be set to it; if we speak of it with reference to what is near ar
hand, (its lessons are) still and correct; if we speak of it in connection with
all between heaven and earth, it is completely equipped with everything.¡±2)
Here again, saying ¡®completely equipped with everything' its implication is
based on distinction.
Therefore "<Do> is the name given from the view of "not-being" to refer to the nondistinctive figure of the absolute while <Yeok> is the name given from the view of "being" to refer to it. What is that is and what is that is not? The what is or is not is verily the distinction, and since there is no distinction there can be <Do> that never changes penetrating everything, while since there is distinction each can be different from another, which produces changes with <Yeok> that presents all kinds of changes in the world. With full understanding of it you will come to know that <Do> and <Yeok> are open to each other, not different at all."(Ch.24)
In this way, distinction starts through <Yeok>, which establishes Samjae of Haneul, Tang and Saram in everything.
[Haneul] "Everything that changes relatively, i.e. that has no shape on itself is refered to by the name of Haneul(Sky)."(Ch.12) That is to say, the Haneul in TAEKWONDO refers to the basis or the entirety of existence. When I say Haneul is the basis of existence, this "basis of existence" refers to its root. This root determines the principle. So Haneul is the principle of the Nature firstly. In its symbolic meaning Haneul means the universe. Just as the earth is in the universe, so can the existence of Tang(Earth) be only after that of Haneul(Sky). By the way, the universe contains a great number of planets. Why the earth is Tang? Because Saram(Man) inhabits there. Another stars where no man stay belongs to Haneul(Sky). Therefore, only after the existence of the transdistinctive entirety any distinguishable object can exist. And its index is the man(Saram). These are the meanings that Haneul, Tang and Saram symbolize.
[Tang] "Everything that is fixed relatively, i.e. that has concrete figure about itself is refered to by the name of Tang(Earth)."(Ch.12) In other words, Tang refers to everything distinguished. Since it was distinguished it is constant relatively, so constant for the time being. If we focus on the continuous change nothing will stay as it is, so nothing will be able to be distinguished as what it is. Therefore, the Tang in TAEKWONDO refers to the specified entity, tangible entity, so the close entity. It is the Earth(Tang) that supports Man(Saram) directly. The life of Man(Saram) depends on the concrete things, so on the constant things although they were temporary.
[Saram] In TAEKWONDO Saram refers to the intentional subjective. The entity that is regarded to have intention is verily Saram. It is the intentional subjective that divides Haneul and Tang. "It is inevitable that there is Man(Saram) between Sky(Haneul) and Earth(Tang) whenever the both are given because they are to be divided from one entirety as Man(Saram) exists."(Ch.12) Thus, Saram is the root of distinction of Samjae. It means, Samjae begins with the existence of Man(Saram). Therefore, the foundation of distinction of Samjae is Saram. The ontological base of Samjae, however, is Haneul(Sky). Tang(Earth) mediates the both. This is the way Saram becomes the foundation of change of Samjae.
1) I Ching, APPENDIX III, Section I, Chapter IV, 23: