2-4. Haneul, Tang and Saram in
Samjae is the central concept that supports the entire arguments of The Philosophical
Principles of TAEKWONDO. Taekwondo is not only in ideas but also in man's actions,
so it is in touch with transdistinctive reality. Thus, the TAEKWONDO as principle
can be explained better based on the concept of Samjae.
"The origin that makes everything
exist is the driving force that generates all changes of everything, which has
been called <DoÔ³> on one hand and it has been also called <Yeokæ¶>
on the other hand."(Ch.24) Any of <Do> and <Yeok> refers
to the transdistinctive truth, which represents the figure of things before
distinction through Samjae. It was said in The Great Appendix; ¡°<Yeok>
comprehends as in a mould or enclosure the transformations of heaven and earth
without any error; by an ever-varying adaptation it completes (the nature of)
all things without exception.¡±1) ¡°Yes, wide
is the <Yeok> and great! If we speak of it in its farthest reaching, no
limit can be set to it; if we speak of it with reference to what is near ar
hand, (its lessons are) still and correct; if we speak of it in connection with
all between heaven and earth, it is completely equipped with everything.¡±2)
Here again, saying ¡®completely equipped with everything' its implication is
based on distinction.
Therefore "<Do> is the
name given from the view of "not-being" to refer to the nondistinctive
figure of the absolute while <Yeok> is the name given from the view of
"being" to refer to it. What is that is and what is that is not? The
what is or is not is verily the distinction, and since there is no distinction
there can be <Do> that never changes penetrating everything, while since
there is distinction each can be different from another, which produces changes
with <Yeok> that presents all kinds of changes in the world. With full
understanding of it you will come to know that <Do> and <Yeok> are
open to each other, not different at all."(Ch.24)
In this way, distinction starts through <Yeok>, which establishes Samjae
of Haneul, Tang and Saram in everything.
"Everything that changes relatively,
i.e. that has no shape on itself is refered to by the name of Haneul(Sky)."(Ch.12)
That is to say, the Haneul in TAEKWONDO refers to the basis or the entirety
of existence. When I say Haneul is the basis of existence, this "basis
of existence" refers to its root. This root determines the principle. So
Haneul is the principle of the Nature firstly. In its symbolic meaning Haneul
means the universe. Just as the earth is in the universe, so can the existence
of Tang(Earth) be only after that of Haneul(Sky). By the way, the universe contains
a great number of planets. Why the earth is Tang? Because Saram(Man) inhabits
there. Another stars where no man stay belongs to Haneul(Sky). Therefore, only
after the existence of the transdistinctive entirety any distinguishable object
can exist. And its index is the man(Saram). These are the meanings that Haneul,
Tang and Saram symbolize.
that is fixed relatively, i.e. that has concrete figure about itself is refered
to by the name of Tang(Earth)."(Ch.12) In other words, Tang refers
to everything distinguished. Since it was distinguished it is constant relatively,
so constant for the time being. If we focus on the continuous change nothing
will stay as it is, so nothing will be able to be distinguished as what it is.
Therefore, the Tang in TAEKWONDO refers to the specified entity, tangible entity,
so the close entity. It is the Earth(Tang) that supports Man(Saram) directly.
The life of Man(Saram) depends on the concrete things, so on the constant things
although they were temporary.
[Saram] In TAEKWONDO Saram refers to the intentional subjective. The
entity that is regarded to have intention is verily Saram. It is the intentional
subjective that divides Haneul and Tang. "It
is inevitable that there is Man(Saram) between Sky(Haneul) and Earth(Tang) whenever
the both are given because they are to be divided from one entirety as Man(Saram)
exists."(Ch.12) Thus, Saram is the root of distinction of Samjae. It
means, Samjae begins with the existence of Man(Saram). Therefore, the foundation
of distinction of Samjae is Saram. The ontological base of Samjae, however,
is Haneul(Sky). Tang(Earth) mediates the both. This is the way Saram becomes
the foundation of change of Samjae.
1) I Ching, APPENDIX III, Section I, Chapter IV, 23:
2) I Ching, APPENDIX III, Secion I, Chapter 7,
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