Each of Samjae and Kang-Yu belongs to different level of discussion.1)
Kang-Yu, like yin/yang or Heo/Sil, is distinguishable, so they are symbols of
everything that shows themselves to eyes. When things show themselves to eyes
they must be distinguished as a sort of symbol. Yin/yang, Heo/Sil and Kang/Yu
lie on the distinction while Samjae underlies them as their foundation.
Because Samjae underlies Kang/Yu, yin/yang and Heo/Sil, they change according
to Samjae. Therefore the formless One in the center of Samjae generates Kang/Yu,
yin/yang and Heo/Sil. Hence it was said: ¡°truth begins along the non-being,
while trace appears caused by being,¡±2) ¡°therefore
let there always be non-being, so we may see their subtlety,/ And let there
always be being, so we may see their outcome.¡±3)
There is change in the undistinguishable One. With distinctions by time along
this change you can get rhythm. ¡°The
rhythm, which is immanent in change, generates Yin and Yang through <Yeok>
while it also produces Kang and Yu through <Do>, so since those four of
Yin, Yang, Kang and Yu compose Man and the composition proceeds as breath there
can be distinctions between Yin and Yang and between Kang and Yu only after
Man(Saram).¡±(Ch.24) Therefore the fundamental framework of trigrams, which
are the compositions of yin/yangs, is the Samjae while what are distinguished
are yin/yang, Kang/Yu and Heo/Sil. These yin/yang, Kang/Yu and Heo/Sil are logictions,
which are the relative, so when compared to lucks they are the emblems of good
and bad4) and when compared to a whole day
they ¡°become the emblems of day and night¡±5)
and the change of replacement and circularity.
Accordingly each step of change, when conceived by its figure, is yin/yang
and, when conceived by its kinds it is Kang/Yu. Additionally the figure of Kang/Yu
is yin/yang and the change of Kang/Yu is distinguished as yin/yang. Therefore
you can conceive Kang/Yu as yin/yang and control yin/yang with Kang/Yu. But
Kang/Yu is different from yin/yang. Therefore, if Kang were conceived as yin
Yu becomes yang while if Kang were conceived as yang Yu becomes yin. Likewise
if you can get yang with Kang you can reach yin by Yu while if you can get yin
with Kang you will reach yang by Yu. Kang itself, however, is neither yang nor
yin and same with Yu. And all the same with Heo/Sil.
1) Most people fail to recognize this difference so they talk
of them in the same level. Thus they advance their discussion often saying,
One refers to Taegeuk, Two to yin/yang, Three to Samjae, Four to trigrams and
so on. In this false understanding, however, we cannot understand why yin/yangs
compose hexagrams along the frame of Samjae.
2) ¡º¼ÂÀ» ¸ðÀº ±Û(üåß²Ìè)¡», ¡×1, ¼¼ °Ë(ß²ãê), ¡°ìµðôÙíÑÃ, îéì×êóîÊ.¡±
3) Lao Tsu, Tao Te Ching, 01, ÍºßÈÙíé°ì¤ÎºÐìÙØ, ßÈêóé°ì¤ÎºÐì.
4) ¡ºñ²æ¶¡», Í¨Þöß¾02: ¼ºÀÎÀÌ ???? á¡ìÑàâÎÏÎºßÚ, Í¨Þöåêì»Ù¥ÑÎýÕ.
5) ¡ºñ²æ¶¡», Í¨Þöß¾02: Ë§êõíº, ñ¸å¨ñýßÚå¥. This text doesn't distinguish yin/yang from Kang/Yu,
so it can be said there is no differentiation between epistemological and practical
distinctions. Therefore in order to distinguish yin/yang and Kang/Yu you have
to replace the Kang/Yu(Ë§êõ) in this sentence with yin/yang(ëäåÕ).