Short History of Taekwondo
Martial art activities organized as means of national defense. We call it
"Martial arts of Tong-I". It is almost impossible to identify the
Martial arts from the military force in this period, especially based on the
literary materials. Korean Mandolin bronze swords, which are unique only in
Tong-I people, used.Social martial arts was related to the Jecheon (Heaven Worship)
ceremony and thus, to dance. Ideas of a developing Sinseondo (Hermits' Teachings)
incorporated into Taekwondo.
period of Power Struggles (B.C 140~)
Many countries developed Martial arts for national defense through the power
struggles against another nations. These countries are North Buyeo, Jolbon Buyeo,
East Buyeo, Nakrang, Dongye, Samhwan. Jecheon ceremony developed more and particularly
: Yeonggo of Buyeo, Mucheon of Dongye, October Festivities of Samhwan, where
martial arts were performed as an important component.
The Three kingdoms period
a. Koguryeo The warrior group `Seonbae' was formed. An alliance
of Jecheon ceremony, which was called "Tong-Maeng", was organized.
Koguryeo martial arts were called "Taekkyeon", "Subak",
"Kwonbeop", "Kakjeo", or "Nalparam" and so on.
b. Shilla Pungwoldo was reconsolidated and intensified as Hwarangdo.
Sesog Ogye (Five Teachings for Worldly Life) was developed for them.
c. Baekje The warrior group `Saurabi' was organized.
d. Gaya Some of the martial arts skills passed to Japan, and
these become Karate (Originally Kayate(meaning Gaya's = Kaya's) Hand changed
into Karate. These days Karate means Empty Hand).
The ancient Taekwondo, being acknowledged as a martial art, was developed to
Subakheui ('Hand Striking Skills'). It becomes one of the indispensable skills
for warriors. Subak was developed in the national institution to Obyeong ('Five
Soldiers') Subakheui as a type of group competition. Taekwondo started to develop
as a game or a sport. (as a Subak Game)
Byeongjo (the Department of National Defense) selected Subakheui as part of
a national exam to select soldiers. Development of weapons like gunpowder and
Jochong ('bird-guns') decreased relative importance of Taekwondo as a national
defense martial art. The section of the martial arts open in the Gwageo(National
Exam for Selecting Government Officials) was founded. The martial art text book
Muye Dobotongji was published.
Various names of ancient Taekwondo unified into Taekwondo'.(1965) Korea Taekwondo
Association joined Korea Athletic Society as a member organization.(1962) and
Taekwondo was designated as a national sport.(1971) Kukkiwon was founded (1972),
which means by its letters "National Skills Institute" and the World Taekwondo
Federation (W. T. F.) was founded.(1973) The World Taekwondo Federation became
an acknowledged organization by I.O.C. (1979)