In this article, the concepts of "Taekwondo" and "TAEKWONDO" were distinguished. "TAEKWONDO" refers to the philosophical principles that man should follow in his life, i.e, the inner feature of Taekwondo as Do() while "Taekwondo" refers to the principles of motion to control one's mind and body, i.e. the outer feature of Taekwondo as motions. Pronunciations of both are same and both refer to a thing, to different aspects of a thing respectively. But this distinction was made just in order to explain logically explicitly what the old masters have taught. Perhaps this distinction may be unnecessary. Anyway, readers can read and understand all with no considerations on it.
Zen refers to the concept of , and Koreans have similar concept to this; Seon. But we can distinguish both like followings : Zen is meditation only in calmness attained in stability while Seon includes both of stable and dynamic one. Thus koreans emphasize meditation in life, in the usual motions. Therefore, we can sum up that whenever Mu Nyeom Mu Sang appears in dynamic motion or in tranquil meditation(Zen), it means Seon. Seon is the name of Zen extended to whole life of man.
Heosil is composition of two concepts ; Heo, which means fullness or merit or strongness or all of these, and Sil, which means emptiness or deficiency or weakness or blind point or all of these. The concept of Heosil is very useful and important in Taekwondo and in everykind of martial arts, but almost imposible to diplace it with a simple english term. So I will keep using this original term in all of my articles.
"KyongRak" is a sort of way along which Ki move all around the man's body. 'Rak' of "Kyong-Rak" means a flow or a way of flow. KyonRak connects almost vital points 'Hyol' to one another in a flowing line, showing indirectly how those Hyols are interrelated and they influence one another. They also represent how inner organs are and they operates, so a traditional Korean medical doctor can recognize the inner state of a patient checking only KyongRak.
This KyongRak system is very useful to cure almost sickness considering the whole harmony of a patient's health, whereas it cannot be seen distinctively visually even though you anotomize man's body. This is why it has been ignored in the contemporary medical sciense of western world.
Hyol refers to those vital points on man's body(or all kinds of animal body) which can be the paths to inner organic operations of a life. In martial arts hyol is a vital point, which cause a sudden death with a severe shock on it. Hyol is also a region of acupuncture and connected with one another along KyongRak. The solar plexus, eyes, perpendicular furrow and so on are all examples of Hyol.
<Jeonggyong 12 maeks>
Jeonggyong 12 maeks are branches of outer KyongRak. They are called such as since they are constituted of 12 branches of outer KyongRak. Almost all Hyol (vital points) are located on these Jeonggyong 12 maeks.
<Kigyong 8 maeks>
Kigyong 8 maeks are branches of inner Kyongrak. They are called such as since they are constituted of 8 branches. They are more important in Ki-gong(training of Ki) rather than in medical cure.
5 viscera refer to the liver, the heart, the spleen, the lung and the kidneys.
6 entails refer to the stomach, the large intestine, the small intestine, the gall, the bladder and three functions of breathing, digestion and urinary functions. The last, i.e. three function is called "Sam-cho" in Korean, and has no anatomical substance so that it can cause difficulty. Any way, these 6 entails with 5 viscera have been an important conception for understanding human physiology in oriental medical science.